# Gravity Timeline

Kepler transforms astronomy and shows that the planets move around the Sun in elliptical orbits. (1609)

Galileo points a telescope at the night sky and makes dramatic discoveries wherever he looks. (1609)

Galileo publishes his *Two New Sciences* in which he reveals the results of his experiments with falling objects. He shows that projectiles follow parabolic paths when falling in the Earth’s gravitational field. (1638)

Jeremiah Horrocks predicts that the planet Venus will cross the face of the Sun. Along with his friend Crabtree, he is the first to witness such an event. (1639)

Newton proves that the Moon is held in orbit by the same force that pulls an apple to the ground. His revolutionary theories of mechanics and gravitation are published in the *Principia*. (1687)

Adams and Le Verrier use Newton’s theory of gravity to successfully predict the existence of a new planet. (1846)

Einstein creates general relativity where gravity is described as the curvature of spacetime. (1915)

Hubble shows that there is a large red shift in the light from distant galaxies, such that the more distant a galaxy the faster it is receding from us. The clear implication is that the whole universe is expanding. (1929)

Penzias and Wilson discover the cosmic microwave background radiation providing firm evidence for the Big Bang theory of the universe. (1964)

A voracious black hole is shown to reside within the powerful

X-ray source Cygnus X-1. (1973)

Hawking stuns the physics community by showing that

black holes are not completely black. (1974)

Andrea Ghez maps out the orbits of stars at the heart of the galaxy, proving the existence of a supermassive black hole. (2008)

The LIGO team announce the first ever detection of gravitational waves from the collision and merger of two black holes. (2015)

For more about Nicholas Mee’s fascinating story of gravity take a look here: Gravity: Cracking the Cosmic Code.

{ 29 comments… read them below or add one }

Nicholas Mee

Hoping you at your best. I just want to express my GRATITUDE for getting me along with latest information about the Universe. I can not tell how excited I feel when some of your work comes in my inbox. Please keep me along

Thank you

Regards

Muhammad Abbas Anjum Lashari Electrical Engineer working in a local power company of Pakistan

It will be very interesting to read the section and conclusions for the BICEP2 data. So far good work.

Regards

Rod

Hi Nicholas

Thank you for keeping me in the loop. As always I am fascinated with the articles. It amazes me constantly what really is going on in the Universe. It is a never ending source of information I do enjoy reading about it.

With my regards

Trudie

Thank you for your great work and enthusiastic readable progress please keep us informed. What a truly fascinating subject and at the frontier of progress

Mr Tim Purcell

One thing that needs to be mentioned is the future possibility of fusion power which the world needs

Dear Prof.Nicholas,

Thank you very much indeed for keeping me informed about the recent developments.As I am retired It is rather difficult to keep myself informed about the new developments.I like your lucid way of presenting the matter and I enjoy reading the same.

With best regards

BSK

Succinct I like so much to understand your descriptions in a subject matter way beyond my intellectual powers

Hi!

Just completeed a course on the Higgs Boson and found your book ‘Higgs Force’ invaluable!!

Looking forward to your next book!!

Best Wishes

Paul F

Looking forward to your new book on gravity Nicholas. Many thanks for your emails which I find very interesting.

Thank You for your lucid expositions.

I really enjoy it.

Dear Prof

I always look forward keenly to your articles and books with their extraordinary lucidity and depth combined. Many of my friends came to know of your regular contributions from me. The one on gravity is in keeping with your excellent communicative skill. Do keep it up, please.

I value greatly your mails. Thanks a lot for the Gravity time line! Such time lines are essential to keep the younger generation informed about the original contributions of geniuses from the past centuries. Do we miss Copernicus in the time line?

Copernicus will be mentioned in the book, as well as some even earlier figures: Thales, Hipparchus and Ptolemy.

Also Euclid and Pythagoras?

Euclid does get a mention in a later chapter. The ideas of Pythagoras are alluded in a couple of places in the book.

dear Nicholas,

thank u for mailing the latest updates regarding our Universe.just as expanding universe it expands our mind as well.please keep sending the emails. Thank U very much.

Dear Prof.,

Anxiously awaiting the release of your new title: GRAVITY.

Sincerely,

D. Lalbeharry

Hi Nicholas, I have been extremely interested in the universe and beyond, since I was a child, when an uncle of mine painted very detailed pictures in ny mind, with the prediction in 1947 that someday, man would walk on the moon. It was such an outstanding statement, and as ridiculous as it seemed then, it turns out to be true, and that was a time when we as a nation, never had anything like a rocket for any purpose, let alone space travel. Space and the universe I find also very frightening, with descriptions of Space bodies having immense magnetic fields which; if one should pass within 1/2 million miles, could suck the iron from the blood cells in our bodies.

There appears to be some doubts about BICEP2:

http://www.bostonglobe.com/news/science/2014/06/19/harvard-led-team-says-evidence-cosmic-inflation-could-have-been-galactic-dust/aZKIWmRTRGKSWkQG8IwY2H/story.html?s_campaign=email_BG_TodaysHeadline

I look forward to reading your new book on my Kindle.

The analysis and interpretation of the BICEP2 data is extremely difficult, so it is only right that it should come under intense scrutiny. When the Planck data is released later this year, it should shed some light (or at least microwaves) on the situation.

Greetings Nicholas,

What about Brian Schmidt. Doesn’t acceleration count ?

Rodney Worthington

The fact that the rate of expansion of the universe is increasing is the most surprising discovery in recent times, so it is, of course, very important. But as yet, there is no theoretical understanding of this and so I have not included any speculations about it in my new book. Hopefully, the situation will be clarified in the near future.

Look forward to reading your book on Gravity.

Rao

Dear Nicholas,

Your mails are a source of wonder and awe. Can’t wait to read your latest.

Best wishes.

Hi Nicholas

Your articles are world class, your enthusiam palpable.

Keep up the outstanding work

Best regards

Nadia

Dear Sir, I found the synapsis of your book very interesting. I am always attracted to explanations that do not rely on the rigors of pure science and mathematics. While I have worked as an engineer for nearly fifty years where math is integral to successful design your explanations insure follow up scrutiny and elegant mathematical formulation. Let the idea loose first then find proof using theory and explanation. Einstein imagined his theories before he applied the math. Your excellent ideas make you a treasure. Thank you, H Hoffman

Thumbs up from me keep up the good work.

Our understanding of gravity has gone through a few permutations, from Newton’s equations through to Einstein’s general relativity.

Thanks for the beautiful exposition on Hawking and the present state of our understanding of gravity in such precise form.